FAQ: How do I teach my dog to defend itself against another dog?

One of the most common searches that get people here is, “How do I teach my dog to defend itself?” There’s already a post on how to teach your dog to defend itself against people, but I have people ask me, frequently, how to teach their dogs to defend themselves against other dogs. Time to talk about that!

There are two things we’ll look at here: 1. Dogs defending themselves from annoying dogs at dog parks, and 2. Dogs defending themselves in dog fights.

1. Dogs defending themselves from annoying dogs at dog parks (etc)

I was at the dog park not too long ago, and someone’s perfectly friendly dog was trying to get another dog to play. We’ll call the friendly dog Friendly and the other dog Worried.

Friendly’s owner wasn’t calling him off because he was, clearly, friendly. Worried’s owner wasn’t doing anything, either because he didn’t know that there was a problem, or because he wanted his dog to defend itself. After circling away, rolling over, and trying to escape, Worried finally turned around and snapped at Friendly. Worried’s owner said, “That’s right, just tell him to back off,” and Friendly’s owner said, “Sorry about that,” but glared at Worried and his owner while taking her dog away.

What did the dogs just learn from this? Did Friendly learn to leave dogs alone when they look frightened? Did Worried learn that he can stand his ground, gain confidence, and get another dog to stop being a bully? No.

Friendly learned that this one dog is unpredictable and nasty. At best, Friendly is now going to be rude to some other dogs who might tolerate it, might be traumatized by it and never tell him to back off, might encourage it, or might attack him. There are enough dogs who will tolerate it or encourage it that he’s not going to learn to stop his behavior; he’s only going to learn that some dogs are unpredictable. At worst, Friendly learned that some dogs are unpredictable, he’s now going to be nervous which is going to bring out the other bullies and he’ll either be bullied and traumatized himself, or he’ll turn aggressive to keep the bullies at bay.

Meanwhile, Worried learned that meeting other dogs is scary and that he cannot trust his pack — his human — to help him. Dog packs work together and protect each other. When your dog is being bullied and you don’t step in, they learn that you either will abandon them to monsters and they can’t trust you (worst case), or that you’re useless, and they can’t trust you (best case). Worried also learned that attacking dogs will work. Next time a dog comes up to him he’s more likely to snap sooner and with more violence to get the dog to leave him alone. The next time it happens, he’ll up the ante again. Soon he’s dog aggressive.

This is the method most people use to teach their dogs to “defend themselves.” Now let me show you how dogs actually work.

One of my clients was having a problem with his young dog, A, mounting and playing too rough with more submissive dogs. We brought him to my house along with a submissive dog, Ike. Now, A is like Friendly, above: very friendly, very playful, but just getting full of himself. He could become a bully if we let him. I’ve spent a lot of time working with Cash and Lily so that they have excellent socialization skills, and neither overcorrect nor undercorrect a young dog. They each have different ways of dealing with a bully (Lily leaves the area and ignores them, while Cash plays “dad” and corrects them), but they are both appropriate.

We let A and Ike together. A started harassing Ike, playing too rough and trying to mount him. Ike did all the appropriate things; he tried to duck away when A was too rough, he tried to leave, he tried to lay down and request gentler play. A, being young, was oblivious.

Then we brought Cash in. Cash stood up tall (to say, “I’m not playing, here”) and went trotting after A as A went running after Ike. When A and Ike collided, Cash stood and watched for a moment. When it became clear that Ike wasn’t enjoying himself, Cash made a loud, open-mouthed noise and shouldered A away. He then proceeded to sniff A all over, essentially saying, “stay here and behave yourself.” After a minute, A eased himself away and went for Ike again.

Once again, Cash shouldered him away with a loud noise and they repeated the sniffing/licking/grooming ritual, with it increasing in time as Cash settled into his father role, and A settled into being a younger dog. When A eased away, he went more carefully to Ike. After a minute, he started getting pushy again; once again, Cash stepped in. This went on for about forty minutes before A got the idea and started playing nicely with Ike (who, realizing he was protected by Cash, agreed to play instead of running away), and rougher with Cash (who doesn’t mind playing rough).

What just happened in our pseudo-dog pack? Rather than teaching Ike to defend himself, Cash taught A to have good manners. Ike grew in confidence seeing that he was protected, and came out to play, meeting A halfway.

So in our dog park scenario above, someone should have come to Worried’s rescue, and taught Friendly firmly and persistently that he couldn’t play rough. Simply pushing him gently away from Worried would suffice.

Note also that if your dog is confident and knows that aggression isn’t okay, but they can’t get away from the annoying dog, they’re going to correct another dog appropriately. With a little noise, a shoulder away, and maybe a bark to say, “Hey! Enough!” They’re going to be Cash.

2. Dogs defending themselves in dog fights.

“Okay,” I hear you cry, “that’s all well and fine for dogs who are friendly but rude. What about a dog fight?”

Okay! Here we go.

Lily was doing zoomies around a ranch one day, when the ranch dog, who had some aggression issues, decided she’d had enough. She came charging over to Lily and attacked. I was much too far away to do anything, though I started running over. This was before I started using Lily for aggressive dogs, back when she’d been willing to fight other dogs, which was something we’d been working on. As I ran I yelled, “Lily! Down!”

Lily dropped under the much larger akita like a sack of bricks. The akita continued to stand over her, jaws clamped around Lily’s throat, snarling. When I got there, I grabbed it by the scruff until it let go, then I pulled it off and freed Lily. No one was injured.

If Lily had fought back against that dog, it would have escalated the situation. The dog weighed twice what Lily did, and had a thick coat to protect her from bites. Lily would have been injured, possibly both dogs would have been injured, and since Lily is a pit it’s possible the owner could have claimed that Lily started it. Lily, given society’s current feeling about pits, could have paid a very high price. Should she have defended herself at the risk of her life? No.

Here’s another scenario. I had Cash at a dog park, and a smaller dog started attacking him. Cash yelped repeatedly and ran to me while I was running to him. I grabbed Cash’s collar and pushed the other dog away, continuing to push him away. When the owner reached me, she scolded me for not letting Cash defend himself. Here’s the thing: that dog weighed maybe 40 pounds. Cash weighed 110. If Cash had defended himself against the smaller dog, he could have badly hurt the smaller dog without even meaning to. Cash would have ended up paying that price, too, at best being banned from dog parks and forced to wear a muzzle outdoors (at worst being put down). I’d have been liable to pay that dog’s vet bills and would have a dog on the federal “dangerous dog” list (which means an official sign, increased renter’s insurance or unable to get renter’s insurance at all), all because my dog defended himself. Instead, Cash learned that I will protect him, and when it happened again he was more willing to tolerate the bad behavior, less frightened by it, and grew in confidence. Now, that sort of minor aggression doesn’t both him; he swings out of the range of teeth and avoids it. (For major aggression, he’s still smart enough to run!)

It takes two dogs to be in a dog fight. If one of them refuses to fight, the likelihood of an injury drops significantly.

So… how do you teach your dog to defend itself against another dog? Don’t protect it. Consequently, you will:

1. Have a dog who doesn’t trust you
2. Run a far greater risk of injury to your dog and others’ dogs
3. Run a far greater risk of dog fights ending in having to give your dog up or put them down
4. Run a far greater risk of being unable to get or pay for insurance
5. Go against a dog’s nature, which is to work as a team and be protected

Given all this, why would you teach your dog to defend itself? If you want a confident, safe dog, teach them to ignore or walk away from aggression and dog fights, and that you’ll protect them so they feel safe enough to try new things, try playing with new dogs, and tolerate worse behavior than they might otherwise — because they know you’ll have their back.



*Edit: This post has created a surprising, to me, amount of controversy. People with opposing opinions are welcome to express them politely; anyone name calling will have their comment deleted.


22 thoughts on “FAQ: How do I teach my dog to defend itself against another dog?

  1. Hey, I have a dog, half pit half lab. He’s about 14 months old all loves to play. I live in the country with wide open space so he’s never on a leash. My mom it taking care of a friends dog who honestly could be put down by how aggressive it is. Early today my mom placed the second dog on a leash outside, for outside time, not knowing I was out with my dog. I didn’t know it was outside and as soon as i go looking for Smokie (my dog) I see him on the ground under the other dog getting dominated. I hated it im not gonna lie is was growling and all that bs. This dog has attacked me before, but at that time it was out of fear. Now, I don’t even look at it to not provoke it because if it happens again ill put it down. Anyway Smokie has never had this happen and If im not there I need my dog to know not to submit to another dog, any advice?

    • Hey!

      Actually, your dog did exactly the right thing in submitting. First of all, you can’t really teach a dog how not to submit to another dog except by abusing (beating) them. Obviously, that’s a bad idea! But even if you could, would you want to? If your dog doesn’t submit, and the other dog is aggressive, the other dog will try to tear him apart. If he DOES submit, 99% of the time the other dog will let him off with a nip.

      Now, the good news: you’re doing exactly the right thing in not looking at the other dog to keep from provoking him, and in keeping him tied up when he’s outside. Most likely, your dog isn’t going to want to go anywhere near him after that. If instead your dog decides he’d like to argue with him and tell him to go away, just call your dog back and praise him for keeping his space. If your dog stays away, there’s no fight, and if your dog submits when he can’t stay away, there’s no fight. I know it’s not what people want to hear, but it’s the truth!


  2. Pingback: FAQ: Will my dog defend me if I teach it not to be aggressive? Or, How do I teach my dog to defend me? | Jenna McDonald's Feathers and Fur

  3. Awesome. This was really thorough and helps me understand why I shouldn’t actually just sit back and watch my worried dog as she runs around the park with her ears pinned back “making a fool of herself since all she has to do is let the other dog know….”! Makes perfect sense to act as a pack. I’m going to start putting this into practice and hope it’ll build my girl’s confidence in me. My other one is the over-friendly young one (I always call her a bully, but reading this post kind of changes my perspective on that). So new question… How do we correct an over-friendly dog (in this case, my own dog) if we’re at a place like a dog park and can’t run over in time to be like the Cash of the situation to shoulder her away and teach her that she can’t be rude like that? I have the same problem with trying to teach her not to jump on people when I’m at a dog park and she gets petted by the person even while I’m telling her no.

    • Great questions! And I’m not sure why they didn’t come through until a year and a half later; I’m sorry about that.

      With your over-friendly girl I’d start working on a loose recall; call if she’ll come away, and if not just go catch her and lead her to a different part of the park. She may go right back over to the other dog, but repeat for what will seem like forever, and she’ll start to get it! You CAN correct for that behavior, but she might think you’re telling her not to play and we don’t want that. For jumping I would correct for that; you want to use what’s called a bridge (there’s a whole post on it under ‘training’) and maybe go bump her with your knee — the human equivalent of Cash’s body blocking!

  4. Hey great article. Wanted to as you if you could help identify what’s going on with my pit. Had trouble starting out with socializing him, but he’s made a massive improvement, or so I thought. He seems to have a dominance issue, and will sometimes check other dogs. He never takes it past a snarl thougj. Thing is thougj I’ve had two instances where the other dogs attacked my dog. I do mean attack, teeth and all. He doesn’t engage though just stands there looking scaed/confused. The owners I talked to said they haven’t seen aggressive behavior from there dogs nor did I take them as such after intoductions. Wanted to know is it that they haven’t taught there dog how to react when that situation occurs or do I need to engage in more obediant training. I sort of feel regardless of what my dog does(other than him attacking, which he doesn’t do) that the other dog should not go trying and sinking its teeth into my dog.

    • Hi there! I have comments coming through after a year; sorry for the very late response.

      I’d agree with you! Depending on the age of your dog (8 months – 2 years), it could be that he’s giving minor challenge behavior that the other dogs are over-reacting to. A snarl isn’t a bad thing if he’s doing it appropriately, unless he’s doing it unprovoked, and then just keep working on it. Sounds like you’re already taking steps to resolve the issue!

      It could also be that those few dogs are themselves dealing with some minor aggression issues, and they’ve hit a personality conflict. And finally, if your pit isn’t fixed that can sometimes make them a target; it just means being a little more protective!

      In the meantime, praise your dog for not returning the fight. That’s a big deal!

  5. No offense but this is just for privilege ppl who don’t have to worry about bad neighbor hoods where stray dogs attack. Between you and your dog, you both should scare him away. Take your dog to a park let him be scared till he learns to fight and have a stranger tease him with a sleeve till he’s mad. But praise him and tell him to return with more praise. This article is BS with the the wrong tittle.

    • You’re right, leaving your dog to be terrified by other dogs will teach them to be dog aggressive, and doing that with a stranger will train them to be human aggressive. Most dogs, unless you’re working with a trainer who works specifically on training protection dogs, will not come back to you once they’re in attack mode. Protection dogs aren’t trained to protect themselves, but rather to attack on command. They are, however, taught NOT to protect themselves unless given that command. It’s a whole different form of training that I have great respect for, but should not be attempted without a trained professional.

  6. I have such a major issue with this that I might even return home with my girly in tears.She’s a 7 year old pit bull and the rule with her is she will ignore strangers and dogs alike if you pay her no mind.Anyways I always wonder why while on our daily walk when all the strays and all the dogs off leash run at us (they are dogs after all) she will become aggressive.with this said we have been in a situations more then once were 3-4 strays attack us at once but I notice she doesn’t really try to “fight them off” kind of like “back off”.I am of course scared for myself also as they attack trying to fight.She just growls and play fights while the strays are circling us barking teeth out trying to bite her.So I just don’t know what to do but it’s a big strain on me

    • You should move to somewhere that doesn’t have packs of stray dogs attacking you, I can say that I’ve never even been attacked once by a stray let alone a whole pack, this sounds like something that happens in an undeveloped country or detroit.

      • Would that we could all simply move when the conditions weren’t ideal! You’d be amazed where packs converge. I’ve lived in cities in California all my life (except when I lived in cities in Canada for university!), and have lived in two different places where there were packs of strays. It’s extremely disconcerting! In first world countries, you usually see them either in rural, poorer areas where spaying and neutering doesn’t happen as often, but they’re still close enough to a city for the dogs to scavenge from trash cans, dumpsters, etc. You’ll also see them in wealthier areas that are on the outskirts of a city (usually under rapid development, gentrification, or where people are doing a lot of remodeling — because construction encourages dogs to escape), but still have a lot of wild space around them for the dogs to vanish into.

        Whether strays approach usually depends on what your dog is saying; “Let’s play!” and “Let’s fight!” are both forms of engagement, and can encourage a stray dog closer. If the stray dog isn’t friendly, it’ll take “Let’s play!” and fight instead, as the above commenter described!


    • Oh, man, that’s a rough spot to be in. I’d suggest getting an air horn, pepper spray, or something called a “Pet Corrector” (comes in a red can, it’s compressed air) and tuck it in your pocket when you walk. That way if strays or loose dogs start massing on you, you can use that to keep them at a distance or chase them off entirely. You can get an air horn or Pet Corrector on Amazon (and a PC at most pet stores), and pepper spray I’d imagine they’d sell anywhere self defense gear or weapons are sold! Possibly on Amazon, but I haven’t looked.

      Try that; I bet it will help a great deal!


  7. Hello, I have a 85 pound lab, who is 14 months old. He is very friendly, not over friendly, and loves to hang out with dogs at a dog park. He always approaches other dogs first, but he never pushes it…If the dog seems to be wanting to left alone, he leaves them alone and find something else to do.

    The problem is… every time we take him to a dog park there is always is at least one dog, and I hate to say this but it’s always either a boxer or a pit, who decides to hump on my dog. Now my dog is super nice and friendly but usually bigger than these dogs…he doesn’t show submissive behavior like showing his belly but runs away from the humper, but of course the humper gets even more excited if my dog runs away and keeps following my dog around and doesn’t leave him alone. Maybe my dog doesn’t mind too much because regardless of the humping he still enjoys the playing, but sometimes it gets more serious than that. Sometimes the humper’s owner tries to stop his/her dog, but not always…they go on talking to me about how his/her dog is simply ‘too playful.’

    I understand that humping is a natural part of dog behavior – when dogs get excited they hump, or when they want to dominate other dogs they hump, and so on, but my dog almost always gets humped on even though he’s big and strong…and sometimes ends up with small injuries. How can I teach my dog how to defend himself, or what should I do as an owner?

    • This is an excellent question. So, there’s a difference between “defending” and “correcting.” Your pup is so submissive he’s not even correcting; he’s just running away! While this is what we want, it would also be okay if he turned and barked/snapped at the other dog. That would be him saying, “Hey, back off!”

      There’s something about super submissive dogs that brings out the bully in other dogs. What I’m not going to tell you is to let it happen until he’s pushed to correct. He may never correct, may eventually attack instead of correcting, or may figure it out while he also figures out that he can’t trust you.

      If I have a client come to me with this problem, I suggest several options. The first step is always the same, no matter what option you then choose.
      Step one: Go to your dog/call your dog toward you (preferably both at once), catch his collar so you can catch the other dog, haul the other dog off and either set him/her aside or (if you’re over-assertive and over-protective like I am!) give him/her a toss aside to dissuade further humping. That dog’s owner will at the very least see that you don’t appreciate their dog’s behavior and will step in (albeit while possibly giving you dirty looks), or at most be offended on behalf of their dog and leave the park. Win/win! If they don’t step in and don’t leave, keep doing it.

      Options: If this is happening on a regular basis, I’d start taking a small squirt bottle with water, put it on stream, and as you go catch your dog squirt the OTHER dog. This may or may not work, depending on how hyper the other dog is.
      Option two: get yourself a can of compressed air (like a “Pet Corrector”, found in most pet stores and on Amazon, or an air horn if that’s easier) and spray it in short bursts at the dog as you approach. The downside is that it might startle your dog, so immediately start praising your dog. The upside is that it almost always works! Do short bursts rather than long, because most dogs get used to the noise during a long burst and will ignore it, but short bursts are continuously surprising. Switch if it doesn’t seem to be working!

      As for the owners, those that are trying to help will probably be a little relieved, those that are ignoring it will realize you need help, and those that are chatting and saying how friendly their dog is may get offended when you break off mid-conversation and go make noise at their dog, but they’ll get the point.

      Since everyone knows that humping is rude behavior, I’ve never had myself or my clients scolded by an owner after protecting my/our dogs. Most of the time, they’re sheepish and apologetic!

      I hope that helps, and if not let me know!


  8. Id usually agree with this. However recently my 2 year old boxer/pit was attacked by an offleash akita. After suffering 4 punctures on the back of his neck and not attacking back the dog akita started going for his stomach and spine. The Akita’s owner nowhere to be found and me not being able to control a muscular 100+lbs dog and mine at the same time lead to my dog biting down on the akita’s neck and killing it ob the spot. I later learned the dog was a “good friendly dog”. Not going far luckily someone recorded it and my dog defended himself like his instinct told him “neutralize the threat before it kills you”. Sometimes nature has to take its course and for someone’s irresponsibility a beautiful dog payed the price and now

    • You actually just made the point I was trying to make.

      Your dog was attacked, and it was awful, but if the akita had been trying to kill him it probably would have. So your dog was injured, but your dog killed the akita. Since your dog is a bully breed, in all likelihood any witnesses would blame your dog, which would then be taken, assessed, and oftentimes put down. For sure — at least here in the state of California and in many other states as well — your dog would be on 30-day quarantine (unable to leave your property), you’d have to put a “Dangerous Dog” sign on your fence — not a “beware of dog” sign, which means nothing legally, but a “Dangerous Dog” sign, which in legal terms means:
      1. Your home or rental insurance is notified (and often canceled or raised).
      2. Your dog may only go out in public with a muzzle on.
      3. If he ever bites any other dog or human, even if it was an accident (two dogs dive for the same tennis ball, both get teeth marks on their muzzles from colliding. Or he’s excited and takes a treat too quickly, scratching someone’s fingers), he’ll be put down.
      4. All of this applies for the rest of your dog’s life.
      5. Animal control checks up on you to make sure you’re following through.

      It sounds like there weren’t any witnesses that reported you, so you were very lucky.

      Normally what I’d tell people in your situation is that if you’re attacked by a dog, don’t worry about your dog; start kicking for the other dog’s abdomen. If you hurt the dog, YOU won’t be held accountable because it’s self-defense. The abdomen (the belly after the ribcage) is one area on a dog that they will work to protect; everything else is protected by bone. But if you kick for the belly for all you’re worth, the attacking dog will jump away. They’ll try again, but you kick again, and they jump away again. Eventually they decide it’s not worth it and retreat entirely, or your yelling gets help. No dogs die, you can sue that owner for damages to your dog if needed, and you and your dog walk away safely.

      I should also note I’ve been in this situation, and I’ve only connected — barely — with a dog one time, despite my best attempts. Dogs see that kick coming for a vulnerable spot and they MOVE.


  9. I have a 165 pound 17 month old mastiff who regularly retreats behind me when my neighbors mini bull terrier comes around and I know the dog is little but he’s aggressive as hell and if I step in I. Sure I’m going to get bit. So instead me and my neighbor go through this stupid little dance of me trying to get swish to calm down and them going crazy pulling at him barking uncontrollably. No matter what I do his dogs are still crazy. I want them to understand that I actually can’t hold swisher back if he doesn’t want me to. How can I make him more assertive towards them. Avoidance isn’t an option. I’m not worried about any laws, I’ve reported the dogs more than once and nothing has or will be done. Im at the point where I’m going to make him protect me which means the neighbors dogs are severely injured. Help?

    • Ugh, I have a similar problem with a neighbor’s dog. When I walk my dogs past (who are trained to ignore), her dogs posture and bark but don’t attack. If I walk past with a dog who is behaving but staring (challenging silently), or who is barking, or anything else, the dogs attack and we have to break them up before there’s blood shed.

      Here’s the first thing to remember (and then I’ll tell you how to fix it): So far no one has had vet bills or hospital bills because Swisher isn’t reacting. Good boy, Swisher! If Swisher did react, the other dog wouldn’t back off, you’d just have a bloody fight.

      If you need your neighbor’s dog to back off, grab either a Pet Corrector (canned air that makes noise; a small bottle will fit into a pocket and last you forever) or a taser (you can get ones that fit on key rings). Either way, as soon as you’ve used one or the other, the dog will stop coming near you without any blood being shed.

      If you try and teach Swisher to defend against just THAT dog, and neither of them is killed, that dog will only get MORE aggressive toward you and Swisher, creating a never ending cycle. Then Swisher will get more aggressive — not only toward that dog, but toward any dog that makes him nervous (which may or may not be an aggressive dog). Once Swisher sees that aggression works for him, he’ll stop assessing if a dog is friendly and just go into attack mode, whether or not it’s appropriate. Someone’s golden retriever puppy will be just as dangerous to Swisher as your neighbor’s dog.

      So grab a Pet Corrector or a taser, depending on your irritation level, and go to town!

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